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Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be gn wmag 3.3v motivationally salient as current smokers.


The influence of various distracting stimuli on spatial working memory. Full Text Available Protecting information from distraction is essential for optimal performance of working memory.

We examined how the presence of distracting stimuli influences spatial working memory and compared the effect of both task-similar and negatively emotionally salient distractors. We checked the effect of distractors on the accuracy of high-resolution representations, as well as the maintenance of spatial categories, and more precisely defined not only the existence but also the direction of the distracting influences gn wmag 3.3v or away from the position of the distractor.

In some trials an additional distracting image scrambled, neutral or negative was shown during the delay. Distracting stimuli did not affect the spread of responses and decreased the tendency of participants to move the responses towards the prototype angle. Different types of distractors did not differ in this effect. Contrary to expectations, the participants moved their responses away from the position of distractors; this effect was more pronounced for negative distractors. In addition to memorizing the exact position and maintaining attention on the position of the stimulus, participants are likely to strategically use information about spatial category membership quadrants and information about the position of the distractor.

The repulsive effect of the distractor likely results from inhibition of its position and indicates the need to supplement computational models of spatial working memory and to take into account different strategies of working memory use. Younger but not older adults benefit from salient feedback during learning. Full Text Available Older gn wmag 3.3v are impaired in reinforcement learning RL when feedback is partially ambiguous e.

gn wmag 3.3v In this study we examined whether older adults benefit from salient feedback information during learning. We used an electrophysiological approach and investigated 15 younger and 15 older adults with a RL task in which they had to learn stimulus-response associations under two learning conditions. As the identical outcome 00 Cent is either better or worse than the alternative outcome depending on the learning condition, this feedback type is ambiguous.

Gigabyte GN-WMKG 11g Wireless Notebook Adapter Windows Driver, Utility

To examine the influence of feedback salience we compared this condition with a condition in which positive and negative outcomes were color-coded and thereby clearly separable. The behavioral results indicated gn wmag 3.3v younger adults reached higher accuracy levels under salient feedback conditions.

Moreover, the error-related negativity ERN and the feedback-related negativity FRN for losses were larger if the good-bad dimension of feedback was salient. Hence, in younger adults salient feedback facilitates the rapid evaluation of outcomes on a good-bad dimension and by this supports learning. In contrast, for older adults we obtained neither behavioral nor electrophysiological effects of feedback salience. Effects of emotional stimuli on working memory processes in male criminal offenders with borderline and antisocial personality disorder. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of concurrently presented emotional stimuli on cognitive task processing in violent criminal offenders primarily characterized by affective instability.

Fifteen male criminal offenders with antisocial and borderline personality disorder ASPD and BPD and 17 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI while performing a working memory task with low and high working memory load. In a second experimental run, to investigate the interaction of emotion and cognition, we presented emotionally neutral, low, or high salient social scenes in the background of the task. During the memory task without pictures, both groups did not differ in general task performance and neural representation of working memory processes.

During the memory task with gn wmag 3.3v background pictures, however, ASPD-BPD subjects compared to healthy controls showed delayed responses and enhanced activation of the left amygdala in the presence of emotionally high salient pictures independent of working memory load.


These results illustrate an interaction of emotion and cognition in affective instable individuals with enhanced reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli which might be an important factor regarding the understanding of aggressive and violent behaviour in these individuals. Effects of aversive stimuli on prospective memory. An event-related fMRI study. Full Text Available Prospective memory PM describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is gn wmag 3.3v by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli.

In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuliwe expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area BA 10 and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuliwhereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex BA10 would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour.


Virtual reality stimuli for force platform posturography. People relying much on vision in the control of posture are known to have an elevated risk of falling. Dependence on visual control is an important parameter in the diagnosis of balance disorders. We have previously shown that virtual reality methods gn wmag 3.3v be used to produce visual stimuli that affect balance, but suitable stimuli need to be found. In this study the effect of six different virtual reality stimuli on the balance of 22 healthy test subjects was evaluated using force platform posturography. According to the tests two of the stimuli have a significant effect on balance. Technological and economical analysis of salient pole and permanent magnet synchronous machines designed for wind turbines. Download Gigabyte GN-WMKG 11b/g Wireless Cardbus Adapter Driver, Utility for Gigabyte GN-WMKG is based on Ralink RT chipset.

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GN-WIAG01 IEEE b/g Wireless LAN Mini-PCI Card User Manual GIGA-BYTE . System Host Interface MiniPCI Type III B Operating Voltages V Typical  Missing: WMAG.


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