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All listings. We therefore transfer Schizoplasmodiidae from Protostelida to Phalansteriida and also add Arboramoeba and Dictyamoeba to Phalansteriida; as all five neo b2246 genera now in Phalansteriida are reticulose this was likely the ancestral condition for Phalansteriida, lost by Phalansterium alone. Protosporangida Cavalier-Smith. Etymol: proto Gk first; sporangium E. Protosporangiidae Cavalier-Smith fam.

Diagnosis: as for Protosporangida. Type genus Protosporangium Olive and Stoa-ianovitch, Other neo b2246 Clastostelium Olive and Stoaianovitch, Our trees provide the first strong evidence that Stygamoebidae are sister to Dactylopodida.

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Dactylopodida are not sisters of Vannellida as assumed when class Flabellinea was proposed for them Smirnov et al. These three orders share the common feature of flattened shape with polyaxial neo b2246 of endoplasm and rather thick glycocalyx, but neo b2246 sharply differentiated into three rather different phenotypes: Vannellida fan-shaped, often with glycostyles forming the cell coatStygamoebida flattened irregular long worm shape, with pyramidal glycostyles in Vermistella but none in Stygamoebaand Dactylopodida [fingerlike pseudopodia dactylopodia formed from a frontal hyaline area and a cell coat of usually glycostyles boat-shaped scales in Korot-nevella only ].

Collectively they correspond closely not quite exactly with the earlier order Glycostylida Cavalier-Smith et al. As ordinal rank should be reserved for taxa that differ rather substantially in phenotype from their closest relatives we have retained the now phylogenetically well substantiated, more comprehensive order Glycostylida emended by the exclusion of Multicilia which is phy-logenetically a variosean Fig. By contrast subclass Flabellinia sensu Smirnov et al. Table 2 places the only other former flabellinian order, Pellitida, in Himatismenida as a suborder.

Kudryavtsev and Pawlowski showed Pellita to be related to Goceviidae and so transferred Goceviidae from Himatismenida to Pellitida. Taxonomic simplicity is better favoured by instead transferring Pellita to Himatismenida, and grouping it with Goceviidae as new suborder Pellitina with the same composition as Pellitida sensu Kudryavtsev et al. Pellitina is now put in Centramoebida see Section 5.

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Absence of glycostyles from Stygamoeba may be secondary loss as it is in a few vannellids Smirnov et al. However, in Fig. Though our protein trees make it likely that this non-grouping of Stygamoeba is an incorrect consequence of low basal resolution by rDNA trees, if multiprotein trees confirm that Vermistella is even more closely related to other gly-costylids than is Stygamoeba, absence of glycostyles in Stygamoeba could be the ancestral condition for the glycostylid clade and it neo b2246 be appropriate to segregate Vermistella into a separate family see Table 2 footnote h. In our trees the sister to Glycostylida is Stenamoeba Thecamoebida, all with elongate monopodial cell bodies without dactylopodiawhich indicates that their common ancestor had an undivided flattened cell shape without discrete finger-like pseudopods dactylopodia and that dactylopodia are a derived condition for suborder Dactylopodina alone.

Differences in body form between Thecamoebida and Glycostylida are no greater than between neo b2246 three glycostylid suborders, so they might reasonably be grouped one day as a superorder, whose common ancestor almost certainly had a flat cell body and no dactylopodia, these pseudopods evolving later in an ancestor of Dactylopodina. The only discosean order not now represented on multigene trees is Dermamoebida comprising Dermamoebidae and Mayorel-lidae. Both have a very thick glycocalyx like Glycostylida with a complex substructure neo b2246 marked contrast to Thecamoebida with a simple thin glycocalyx.

Dermamoebida could be sisters to Glycostylida, even closer than Thecamoebida; on unresolved Figs. We neo b2246 this novel amoebozoan clade Cutosea, because Sapocribrum and Squamamoeba share a unique skin-like cuticle or envelope surrounding the whole cell except for rare small breaks or pores through which pseudopodia protrude Kudryavtsev and Pawlowski, ; Lahr et al. The envelope comprises a dense matrix in which irregularly arranged oval structures about nm Sapocribrum or nm Squamamoeba in length are embedded. Though the embedded ovals were initially called a cell coat' of ' scales' Kudryavtsev and Pawlowski, ; Lahr et al.

1914 › Doub, Chas V (p. 633)

Consequently we refer to the ovals embedded in the cutosean neo b2246 matrix not as scales but as scale-like as on a crocodile or snake skin. In Sapocribrum and Squamamoeba the envelope is clearly separate from the plasma membrane, like the test of testate amoebae, not directly attached to it as is the carbohydrate-rich surface coat of animal cells or the much thicker but still flexible cell coats of many Discosea Pellita, Dermamoebida - called cuticle in Mayorella, Glycostylida. Its deforma-bility during specimen drying might just be because it is rather thin and unmineralised like the Atrichosa test.


Though tests of Arcellinida are uniporose like that of Sapocribrumthose of Trichosida are multiporose like that of Squamamoeba; being multiporose is therefore no reason not to call the Squamamoeba enveloping structure a test. However, the locomotory mechanism of Squamamoeba Kudyravtsev and Pavlowski, implies a plastic envelope that can neo b2246 as cytoplasm flows past the ventrally anchored mammiliform pseudopodia, not a rigid test. As testa originally meant shell, implying rigidity, we agree that the scalifom outermost layer of Cutosea is best not called a test, and refer to it as an envelope as, like an ordinary letter envelope, it is distinct from its contents and completely encloses them except for some tiny pores.

Cutosea are a previously unrecognised third group of lobosan armoured, non-naked amoebae additional to the testate Arcellinida uniporose and Neo b2246 multiporose.NEO b for sale 12K -- negotiable Processor: Pentium (R) Dual-Core CPU t @ ghz System type: bit Display: \" standard. Hi there, Save hours of searching online or wasting money on unnecessary repairs by talking to a 6YA Expert who can help you resolve this.

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